Re: Theos-World Sound familiar?
Apr 27, 2002 10:15 AM
by Ademm Indraka
It would seem that the universe has no bounds(no begining and no
end). The Idea of the universe can not be calculated in its entirety.
(universe = existence)
However in my current idealism , the universe is a conception of
existence. Existence (the fact that all things exist) is the
substance in which the concept of the universe exists.
(existence > universe)
>Since they talk Leon's talk, perhaps Leon would like to put this in context
>No beginning, no end to universe, pair suggest
>By Edie Lau -- Bee Science Writer
>Published 2:15 a.m. PDT Friday, April 26, 2002
>If the universe was created by a big bang, which is the prevailing view of
>science, what happened before that? And how will it all end?
>These nagging questions are not addressed by the big-bang theory, but now
>there's a model of the universe that offers an answer. It goes like this:
>The universe expands and pauses, expands and pauses endlessly, so that time
>neither begins nor ends.
>"It gets rid of the problem of explaining a creation. ... The universe has
>been around forever," said Paul Steinhardt, a Princeton University
>astrophysicist, who, with Neil Turok at Cambridge University, proposes a
>cyclic universe model in a paper published online today by the journal
>Using exotic concepts in modern physics, the ambitious model liberally
>rearranges certain ideas in big-bang theory. One implication is that the
>bang wasn't all that big. The cyclic model says, for example, that galaxies
>formed out of forces that existed before the bang.
>For a culture such as ours, which marks history by linear time -- past,
>present and future -- the idea of timeless time is mind-bending.
>But as Steinhardt noted, other cultures, notably the ancient Hindus, saw the
>universe as cyclic.
>Western astrophysicists in the 1930s put forth similar "oscillatory" models
>of the universe. The model described today recycles some old ideas and
>incorporates new concepts, including the notion of the universe having extra
>"I think it will make a splash," said Daniel Cebra, an experimental
>physicist at the University of California, Davis, involved in a project
>reconstructing the first moments after the presumed big bang. "Steinhardt is
>a big name in this field, so what he says people listen to pretty
>Andreas Albrecht, a UC Davis cosmologist, said the idea needs more
>development to be persuasive, but called it "very stimulating and fun."
>Stimulating more thinking on the fundamental form of the universe was the
>reason Steinhardt began scouting for a new model.
>In earlier years, Steinhardt -- along with Albrecht and others -- developed
>a piece of the standard model of the universe known as inflation. Inflation
>theory says that a period of extremely fast expansion followed the cosmic
>boom that gave rise to the universe. Inflation then gave way to more sedate
>growth, the era we're thought to be in today.
>"One way of exploring my confidence in the (inflation) model is (seeing)
>whether or not we can come up with something else," Steinhardt said. "We
>decided to see ... just how far we could get. I'm as surprised as anyone
>just how far we have gone."
>Described very simply, the cyclic model works this way:
>The big bang is not the start of time, but rather, a bridge to an earlier
>era of contraction. Coming after the bang is the usual formation of matter
>and radiation. The slow expansion lasts trillions of years.
>Eventually, the matter and radiation are so diluted that the universe
>becomes virtually empty. The expansion ends.
>During this period of stagnant growth, the dynamics of the universe change,
>such that energy rebuilds to fuel another bang.
>What is the change? This is where even Steinhardt agrees that the model gets
>Borrowing from a branch of physics known as string theory, the cosmologists
>propose that the universe as we know it is really a surface in a
>In Steinhardt's words: "We're stuck like flies on fly paper to move only in
>our own dimension."
>In his cyclic model, there is a second surface, like the second piece of
>bread in a sandwich, that we can't touch, feel or see. The surfaces are
>called membranes, or 'branes' for short.
>The branes can move in two ways: They can stretch, remaining a fixed
>distance apart; and they can smash together and come apart again. They
>cannot be smashed together at the same time they're being stretched.
>Matter and radiation cause branes to stretch. When they have stretched so
>far that the universe is emptied of its matter and radiation, the branes
>smash together. The collision of surfaces creates more matter and radiation.
>The cycle begins anew.
>By Albrecht's analysis, the collision is a weak point in the model. "The
>(mathematical) equations they're using don't include any detail about the
>inside of the branes, so to speak," he said. "So they just have to make a
>wish basically, and say, I hope that when they collide, it comes out in this
>Such concerns may be best left for scientists to hash out, but the general
>ideas are worth the attention of everyone, said Craig Hogan, an
>astrophysicist at the University of Washington.
>"It's not just talking about the first moments of the universe, but how
>physics is put together at the most basic level," Hogan said. "What makes it
>work? That sort of question has very immediate implications."
>When Einstein published his theories of space, time and gravity nearly 100
>years ago, the ideas were considered useless for everyday life, Hogan said.
>Today, they're anything but.
>A case in point: An understanding of how light travels through space, and of
>the relationship between space and time, underlies the Global Positioning
>System, the satellite navigation tool used for everything from aiming bombs
>to hiking, golfing, and driving around an unfamiliar city.
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IDAM VRITRAHAN KUMARA AMAKADMON
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