Spontaneous generation - scientifically proven?
Oct 15, 2005 09:32 PM
The following article covering the latest findings in physics seems to be the
beginning of the final proof of theosophy, as predicted by HPB to come around
the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. These findings -- based on
relativity and quantum theories in conjunction with the elegant mathematicsof
Superstring/M-brane theory and the ABC model linking consciousness, mind, brain, body,
etc. with mass-energy or matter through fractally involved holographic fields
within fields within fields in seven hyperspace dimensions -- will ultimately
eliminate the last objection that theosophy is not scientific and does not
teach the true nature of all reality... From the zero-point through the seven
fold inner fields, to the vastness of phenomenal space... That we each, as the
microcosm of the macrocosm, can experience directly in its entirety.
The last aspect of reality that science has to accept to make it entirely
consistent with theosophy is; That subjective consciousness (awarenesss-will) is
the inherent nature of the ubiquitous zero-point of Absolute Space itself and
is always separate from and beyond objective space and time... Yet,
simultaneously arising with them at the primal beginning, along with the mind and memory
fields that all originate in the angular momentum of the g-force or "spinegy'
The current controversies between "intelligent design" and "scientific
evolution" is sign that the entire world is beginning to pay attention to these new
A tool to measure what happens in empty space
Oct. 14, 2005
Special to World Science
Physicists have devised a new tool to track what goes on in what we normally
call empty space.
An “empty” space is never truly empty, physicists believe, even if every
atom and particle in it has been removed. This is because particles will continue
to appear out of nowhere, then vanish.
A MEMS, or machine whose parts are thousandths of a millimeter in size, with
a spider mite strolling on it. (Courtesy Sandia National Laboratories)
In the new research, physicists report having measured this activity using a
cloud of atoms that merge to effectively become one giant atom. This bizarre
substance, called a Bose-Einstein condensate, was invented a decade ago buthas
found little practical use since then.
The new findings, researchers say, mark the first time a Bose-Einstein conden
been used to study anything besides its own properties. It was employed to
investigate something perhaps even stranger: the so-called virtual particles
that appear and disappear in the void.
Engineers must take virtual particles into account as they design ever-tinier
machines and robots, a growing industry. On small scales, virtual particles
create unpredictable forces that can throw off these devices.
In studying virtual particles, the researchers probed a phenomenon that seems
to violate a physical law recognized more than two centuries ago: the law of
conservation of energy.
The law says energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It’s alsotrue of
any object, because objects have mass, and mass is convertible to energy.
Einstein showed this.
Virtual particles get around this law thanks to a subatomic phenomenon called
the uncertainty principle. Understanding the principle, as well as
Bose-Einstein condensates, requires some explanation of the nature of subatomic
Particles and waves
Scientists consider subatomic particles as things with two seemingly
contradictory natures: they are both particles and waves. This is because they act
like one or the other depending on the experiment one does.
One can shoot them into a target like tiny bullets, in which case they act
But they also move like waves: for instance, they create interference
patterns. These are patterns similar to those that appear when one drops two pebbles
in a pond. Complex ripple patterns will appear where the two sets of circles,
each expanding outward, overlap.
Physicists have found that subatomic particles’ wave nature makes it
impossible for the particles to have both a precisely defined location and speed. This
ultimately lets them briefly appear out of nowhere.
The effect is due to certain oddities of particle-waves.
One of these quirks is that with particle-waves, unlike with water waves,
there is no physical thing that actually “waves” or oscillates. With
particle-waves, what oscillates is the probability that the associated particle will be
found in one place or another when an experimenter looks for it.
Physicists have no idea why any of this is so, or what it means. They’ve just
found that it happens to work this way.
Another unusual property of a particle-wave is that, unlike a water wave, it’
s not a long series of ripples following each other like a parade. It’s
instead a group of just a few ripples bunched together, called a “wave packet.”
Mathematically, the only way to represent a wave packet is as a composite of
many sets of waves, lined up so that their peaks and troughs cancel out
everywhere except in the area of the wave packet. The resulting packet consists of
one bigger central wave, with smaller waves in front of it and behind it, dying
down with increasing distance from the central wave.
Thus the wave packet has no precise location; it’s a little spread out. By
adding more overlapping waves, one can reduce this spread, though never
eliminate it completely.
Each of the many waves that go into a wave packet has a slightly different
speed. Thus the wave packet itself has a range of speeds, which of course makes
no sense if you think of it as a particle. But the wave nature of particlesis
So not only does it have an imprecisely defined location, it also has an
imprecisely defined speed. In fact, more precisely you define its location,the
less precisely you define its speed—because you’re adding more waves. The more
precisely you define its speed, the less precisely you define its location—
because you’re subtracting waves and increasing the spread.
The idea that there’s no such thing as empty space stems from this finding
that a particle can’t have both an exact speed and location. A point of “empty”
space is mathematically identical to a weightless particle with a speed of
zero and a perfectly defined location, that being the point itself. This isn’t
Therefore, physicists postulate that empty space is actually full of
subatomic particles that flash in and out of existence.
This doesn’t violate energy conservation because it turns out that the
uncertainty in speed and position is translatable, mathematically, into
uncertainties in energy and time. If a particle is short-lived enough, its energy can be
so “fuzzy” that whoever or whatever enforces the conservation of energy law can
’t detect a violation.
Unfortunately, the fuzziness of virtual particles also makes them impossible
to detect by any measuring instruments. Not directly, anyway. But
circumstantial evidence of their existence is obtainable.
One way to find this evidence is through an effect called the Casimir-Polder
force. If an atom is very close to a flat surface, some particle-waves can’t
fit between the atom and the surface. Waves, in particular, need space.
This means there will be a few less virtual particles to one side of the atom
than the other.
On the side with more virtual particles, it will “feel” a slight force
pushing it toward the plate. This is because the virtual particles will be
occasionally banging into the atom from that side, more often than from theother
A related effect occurs when two flat plates are close enough together, in
which case the plates will be attracted to each other.
Physicists have trouble measuring these forces because they are so slight.
But Eric Cornell and his colleagues at the University of Colorado in Boulder,
Colo. reported last month they were able to measure the Casimir-Polder force
using a Bose-Einstein condensate. The experiment, they added, may lead to new,
more sensitive measurements of these small-range effects.
A Bose-Einstein condensate, like the Casmir-Polder force, exists thanks to
strange laws of quantum mechanics, the physics of the very small.
Normally, the atoms in a gas are scattered, bouncing around like ping-pong
balls. But if the gas is cooled, the atoms slow down. Cooling it more makes
their speeds approach zero. But this is a precisely defined number. Since the
speed becomes better defined, each atom’s location must become lessdefined. In
technical terms, each atom’s wave packet—the zone in which the particle might
Make the gas colder and colder, and each wave packet starts to overlap with
neighboring ones, growing until it envelops all the rest. Thus, all the wave
packets overlap. If all the atoms are identical, the wave packets, and thusthe
atoms, can merge and become indistinguishable. They are all in the same place,
have the same speed, and so on. They are like one atom.
This is a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Because a condensate acts like one atom, it feels the Casimir-Polder force.
But since it’s much easier to see than an atom, it makes that forceeasier to
measure, said John Obrecht, a member of the University of Colorado team.
As they described a paper published in the Sept. 15 issue of the research
journal Physical Review A, Cornell and colleagues created a Bose-Einstein
condensate shaped like a thin cigar. Using a magnetic field, they made it float a few
thousandths of a millimeter from a flat plate made of silica. They then set
it gently oscillating.
Because the Casimir-Polder force tugged more strongly on the side of the
cloud closer to the plate than on the further side, it disrupted the normal
oscillations slightly. By comparing the oscillations with and without the nearby
plate present, Cornell’s team estimated how strongly the force was acting.
This way they tallied the force at a distance of 5 thousandths of a
millimeter, “significantly farther than has been previously achieved,” the team wrote.
The researchers said the work could aid in the design of
microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), tiny electronic devices built at this scale or smaller, and
used in industries such as medicine, automobiles and electronics.
“Tremendous experimental progress in both ultracold atomic systems and
microelectromechanical systems (MEMS’s), has pushed both fields towards precise work
very close to surfaces—regimes where Casimir-type effects become important,”
Cornell and colleagues wrote.
Maarten DeKievit of the University of Heidelberg in Germany said Cornell’s
approach is a good start towards getting more precise measurements of these
forces, but needs more work to become useful.
This is because the cloud in the experiment had just one shape, he said, but
physicists need information to help them predict what would happen with any
shape. The effects can be so complicated, he added, that results with one shape
don’t say much.
“It’s a very nice experiment,” he said. “What you could dream of is if that
they could change the form of the condensate” to get a range of precise
shapes, he added. Then they could measure the force “as a function of shape.”
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